Declaring state variables as a pair of [something, setSomething] is also handy because it lets us give different names to different state variables if we want to use more than one:

function ExampleWithManyStates() {
  // Declare multiple state variables!
  const [age, setAge] = useState(42);
  const [fruit, setFruit] = useState('banana');
  const [todos, setTodos] = useState([{ text: 'Learn Hooks' }]);
In the above component, we have age, fruit, and todos as local variables, and we can update them individually:

function handleOrangeClick() {
    // Similar to this.setState({ fruit: 'orange' })
    setFruit('orange');
  }
Declaring state variables as a pair of [something, setSomething] is also handy because it lets us give different names to different state variables if we want to use more than one:

function ExampleWithManyStates() {
  // Declare multiple state variables!
  const [age, setAge] = useState(42);
  const [fruit, setFruit] = useState('banana');
  const [todos, setTodos] = useState([{ text: 'Learn Hooks' }]);
In the above component, we have age, fruit, and todos as local variables, and we can update them individually:

function handleOrangeClick() {
    // Similar to this.setState({ fruit: 'orange' })
    setFruit('orange');
  }
This JavaScript syntax is called “array destructuring”. It means that we’re making two new variables fruit and setFruit, where fruit is set to the first value returned by useState, and setFruit is the second. It is equivalent to this code:

var fruitStateVariable = useState('banana'); // Returns a pair
  var fruit = fruitStateVariable[0]; // First item in a pair
  var setFruit = fruitStateVariable[1]; // Second item in a pair
The names on the left aren’t a part of the React API. You can name your own state variables:

const [fruit, setFruit] = useState('banana');
You might have noticed the square brackets when we declare a state variable:

const [count, setCount] = useState(0);
Let’s now recap what we learned line by line and check our understanding.

1:  import React, { useState } from 'react'; 2:
 3:  function Example() {
 4:    const [count, setCount] = useState(0); 5:
 6:    return (
 7:      <div>
 8:        <p>You clicked {count} times</p>
 9:        <button onClick={() => setCount(count + 1)}>10:         Click me
11:        </button>
12:      </div>
13:    );
14:  }
We’ve learned that useEffect lets us express different kinds of side effects after a component renders. Some effects might require cleanup so they return a function:

useEffect(() => {
    function handleStatusChange(status) {
      setIsOnline(status.isOnline);
    }

    ChatAPI.subscribeToFriendStatus(props.friend.id, handleStatusChange);
    return () => {
      ChatAPI.unsubscribeFromFriendStatus(props.friend.id, handleStatusChange);
    };
  });
Other effects might not have a cleanup phase, and don’t return anything.

useEffect(() => {
    document.title = `You clicked ${count} times`;
  });
One of the problems we outlined in the Motivation for Hooks is that class lifecycle methods often contain unrelated logic, but related logic gets broken up into several methods. Here is a component that combines the counter and the friend status indicator logic from the previous examples:

class FriendStatusWithCounter extends React.Component {
  constructor(props) {
    super(props);
    this.state = { count: 0, isOnline: null };
    this.handleStatusChange = this.handleStatusChange.bind(this);
  }

  componentDidMount() {
    document.title = `You clicked ${this.state.count} times`;
    ChatAPI.subscribeToFriendStatus(
      this.props.friend.id,
      this.handleStatusChange
    );
  }

  componentDidUpdate() {
    document.title = `You clicked ${this.state.count} times`;
  }

  componentWillUnmount() {
    ChatAPI.unsubscribeFromFriendStatus(
      this.props.friend.id,
      this.handleStatusChange
    );
  }

  handleStatusChange(status) {
    this.setState({
      isOnline: status.isOnline
    });
  }
  // ...
In a function component, we have no this, so we can’t assign or read this.state. Instead, we call the useState Hook directly inside our component:

import React, { useState } from 'react';

function Example() {
  // Declare a new state variable, which we'll call "count"  const [count, setCount] = useState(0);

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